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美国民主字体[ ] 颜色[ 绿 ]
分类:文学创作  创建于:2012-07-03 被查看:15224次 [收藏:日记|作者] [评论]
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《美国民主》 

美国:神话现实

--- 自由如何
构成美国核心价值观

人民决定政府样式政府权力建立一个制衡制度,确保个人自由得到尊从

......
......

政府功能是社会保障确保每一个人自尊自重。个人为他人着想。个人致力于共益事业随着人们摆脱政府监控和追求个人幸福社会是否垮掉社会是否动荡

答案是, 否

......
......


 

 
How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart


// 自由既责任人给与选择自由。人必认真承担 (自由选择) 责任。
// 比如, 我朋友的孩子。执意要买东西。不必阻止反对。要引导。钱父母孩子各出一半。孩子会决定买还是不买。何者更划算。

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices.

// 不用害怕自由民主会导致混乱腐败。持久不衰自由民主对子民有强大调控力。

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners.

America: Myths vs. Realities


At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?


托克维尔跟美国社会和民主制度的二三事

从最近出版的几本关于托克维尔的新书当中,我们也许能够更为清晰的了解他和他笔下的美国社会和民主。


※ 来源: http://www.JiaoYou8.com ※
 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2014-07-09 22:39:56  [评论]

匕九之歌 107

美国民主

美国:神话与现实
--- 自由如何构成美国核心价值观

- 人民决定政府样式和政府权力,建立一个制衡制度,确保个人自由得到尊从。
- 政府功能是社会保障。确保每一个人自尊自重。个人为他人着想。个人致力于共益事业。随着人们摆脱政府监控和追求个人幸福。社会是否垮掉。社会是否动荡?
  答案是, 否。

How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

// 自由既责任。人给与选择自由。人必认真承担 (自由选择) 责任。
// 比如, 我朋友的孩子。执意要买东西。不必阻止反对。要引导。钱父母孩子各出一半。孩子会决定买还是不买。何者更划算。

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices. 

// 不用害怕自由民主会导致混乱腐败。持久不衰自由民主对子民有强大调控力。

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners. 
America: Myths vs. Realities

At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?

托克维尔跟美国社会和民主制度的二三事
 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-21 12:50:31  [评论]
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-21 12:47:41审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]
// 人皆生而平等;  民有、民治、民享之政府当免于凋零。

葛底斯堡演讲

  在八十七年前,我们的国父们在这块土地上创建一个新的国家,乃基于对自由的坚信,并致力于所有人皆生而平等的信念。
 
  当下吾等被卷入一场伟大的内战,以考验是否此国度,或任何肇基于和奉献于斯者,可永垂不朽。吾等现相逢于此战中一处浩大战场。而吾等将奉献此战场之部分,作为这群交付彼者生命让那国度勉能生存的人们最后安息之处。此乃全然妥切且适当而为吾人应行之举。   

  但,于更大意义之上,吾等无法致力、无法奉上、无法成就此土之圣。这群勇者,无论生死,曾于斯奋战到底,早已使其神圣,而远超过吾人卑微之力所能增 减。这世间不曾丝毫留意,也不长久记得吾等于斯所言,但永不忘怀彼人于此所为。吾等生者,理应当然,献身于此辈鞠躬尽瘁之未完大业。吾等在此责无旁贷献身 于眼前之伟大使命:自光荣的亡者之处吾人肩起其终极之奉献—吾等在此答应亡者之死当非徒然—此国度,于神佑之下,当享有自由之新生—民有、民治、民享之政府当免于凋零。   

Gettysburg Address

        Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.   

  Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field,
as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.   
 
  But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-17 01:16:01  [评论]
unavail 发表评论于
unavail 评论于:2012-07-15 00:40:08

《美国民主》

美国:神话与现实

自由如何构成美国核心价值观

人民决定政府样式和政府权力,建立一个制衡制度,确保个人自由得到尊从。

......
......

政府功能是社会保障。确保每一个人自尊自重。个人为他人着想。个人致力于共益事业。随着人们摆脱政府监控和追求个人幸福。社会是否垮掉。社会是否动荡?

答案是, 否。

......
......

How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

// 自由既责任。人给与选择自由。人必认真承担 (自由选择) 责任。
// 比如, 我朋友的孩子。执意要买东西。不必阻止反对。要引导。钱父母孩子各出一半。孩子会决定买还是不买。何者更划算。

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices.

// 不用害怕自由民主会导致混乱腐败。持久不衰自由民主对子民有强大调控力。

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners.

America: Myths vs. Realities

At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?

托克维尔跟美国社会和民主制度的二三事
Shamman
于2011-07-28 19:05:58翻译 | 已有1054人浏览 | 有27人评论

从最近出版的几本关于托克维尔的新书当中,我们也许能够更为清晰的了解他和他笔下的美国社会和民主。

论美国的民主 | 美国民主 | 托克维尔 | 美国例外论


unavail 评论于:2012-07-15 00:38:22

// 美国研究生入学: 阅读考试

美国:神话与现实(英汉对照版) yamakat

自由是怎样早就美国人的心灵习惯的

在几股哲学、社会和地缘政治潮流近乎机缘巧合的汇流处,美利坚合众国应运而生。于是,一个简单的想法被付诸实践:由人们自行决定采用什么形式的政府并制定一整套制衡体制来限定该政府的所有权力以确保个人自由得到尊重。

尽管看似简单,这却是人类有史以来所产生的最为激进、最为革命的想法。它试图将人类组织形式颠倒过来,无异于在对人性自身的理解上的一个大胆的飞跃。人是社会性动物。成立政府为的是确保每个个体守规矩、为他人着想、为公益做贡献,以保障社会的安全。现在,人们从政府的监督下解放出来了,开始追求各自自身的利益,那社会岂不要崩溃?随之而来的岂不是动乱?

美利坚合众国创立两百多年以后的今天,我们可以满怀信心地回答上述疑问:受启蒙运动启发而行的美国实验已经取得了无与伦比且令人叹为观止的成功。其实,这种判断根本就不必等待如此之久。早在美国创立仅仅70年后的1848年,阿列克斯·德·托克维尔就得出结论说:美国“不仅是地球万国中最繁荣也是最稳定的国家”。托克维尔是在对年轻的美利坚共和国进行过最具穿透力的洞察之后才得出这一结论的。而且,据他考察,在美国,“主权在民的原则【已被】简化为最直接、最不受羁绊、最彻底的日常行事方式。”

但是,在当今世界的很多地方,对于自由即会导致动乱的恐惧仍然是执政者、知识分子和一般民众的通患。有讽刺意义的是,他们常常举美国作为他们害怕见到的主要例证。但是,他们举证的美国是一个充满神话和误解的美国,与现实美国相距甚远。

=================================================================

America: Myths vs. Realities

At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?

Two and a quarter centuries after the founding of the United States of America, we can answer those doubts with confidence: the Enlightenment-inspired American experiment has been a singular and astounding success. Actually, that judgment did not have to wait so long. In 1848, merely seventy years after America's founding, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that America was "not only the most prosperous, but the most stable, of all the nations of the earth." And he made that conclusion after the most penetrating look into the young republic ever attempted and after observing: "The principle of the sovereignty of the people [has been] reduced to practice in the most direct, the most unlimited, and the most absolute manner" in America.

Yet, in many parts of the world today, paranoia concerning the prospect of liberty-induced chaos continues to inflict rulers, intellectuals, and common people alike. Ironically, they often point to America as a prime example of what they fear may come. The America they point to, however, is an America of myths and misperceptions, far removed from the American reality.

How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

unavail 发表评论于
// 宪政民主 == 全民普选 ???
// 民主 = 普选。宪政 = ???

================================================================================
主张中国走“宪政民主”道路的有胡耀邦之子胡德平、叶剑英子女叶向真、叶选宁、陆定一之子陆德、陶铸女儿陶斯亮、马文瑞女儿马晓力等,习近平的姐姐习桥桥有时也会前往赴会

 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 21:25:07  [评论]
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 21:18:15审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]

// 自由国家。勇士的家乡。
// 信赖上帝。祖国有天相。

美国国歌

  美国国歌共包括四节,绝大多数场合只唱第一节。

    哦,你可看见,透过一线曙光,我们对着什么,发出欢呼的声浪?

  谁的阔条明星,冒着一夜炮火,依然迎风招展,在我军碉堡上?
  火炮闪闪发光,炸弹轰轰作响,它们都是见证,国旗安然无恙。
  你看星条旗不是还高高飘扬,在这自由国家,勇士的家乡?
 
  透过稠密的雾,隐约望见对岸,顽敌正在酣睡,四周沉寂夜阑珊。
  微风断断续续,吹过峻崖之巅,你说那是什么,风中半隐又半现?
  现在它的身上,映着朝霞烂漫,凌空照在水面,霎时红光一片。
  这是星条旗!但愿它永远飘扬,在这自由国家,勇士的家乡。
 
  都到哪里去了,信誓旦旦的人?他们想望的是能在战争中幸存。
  家乡和祖国,不要抛弃他们,他们自己用血,洗清肮脏的脚印。
  这些奴才、佣兵,没有地方藏身,逃脱不了失败和死亡的命运。
  但是星条旗却将要永远飘扬,在这自由国家,勇士的家乡。
 
  玉碎还是瓦全,摆在我们面前,自由人将奋起保卫国旗长招展!
  祖国自有天相,胜利和平在望;建国家,保家乡,感谢上帝的力量。
  我们一定得胜,正义属于我方,“我们信赖上帝。”此语永矢不忘。
  你看星条旗将永远高高飘扬,在这自由国家,勇士的家乡。

 
  Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light,
  What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
  Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
  O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
  And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
  Gave proof thru the night that our flag was still there.
  Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
  On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
  Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
  What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
  As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
  Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
  In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
  'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave,
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
  And where is that band who so vauntingly swore?
  That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion.
  A home and a country should leave us no more,
  Their blood has washed out of of their foul footsteps' pollution.
  No refuge could save the hireling and slave,
  From the terror of flight and the gloom of the grave.
  And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
  Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand,
  Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
  Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued land;
  Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
  Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
  And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
  And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

美国国歌:《星条旗》(The Star-Spangled Banner曾译《星条旗之歌》)。该曲由美国律师弗朗西斯·斯科特·基(Francis Scott Key)作词,美国作曲家约翰·斯塔福德·史密斯(John Stafford Smith)作曲。

  美国国歌为星条旗之歌(The Star-Spangled Banner),但由于种种原因在中国现在经常被译作“星条旗永不落”。虽然这种译法使该曲与美国国家进行曲《星条旗永不落》(The Star and Stripes Forever)重名,并且与英文原意不符,但该译法的使用依然相当广泛。

  基的《星条旗》手稿 

基的《星条旗》手稿

  歌词是一位名叫弗朗西斯·斯科特·基(Francis Scott Key)的美国律师,在1814年英美战争战争期间的巴尔的摩,透过战场上的硝烟看到星条旗经过英军炮轰后仍在要塞上空高高飘扬时感慨万分而即景写下的。
  歌词写出来后,在一名法官的建议下,配上了美国作曲家约翰·斯塔福德·史密斯(John Stafford Smith)创作的《To Anacreon in Heaven》,并取了现在的名字,从此流传开来。直到1931年被美国国会正式定为国歌。
  人们常常对美国国歌与曲谱是“进行曲之王”苏萨(John Philip Sousa,1854年-1932年)的著名代表作《星条旗永不落》进行曲(The Stars and Stripes Forever),产生混淆。其实听过两曲的人都能迅速地将其分辨开来。
  另据传把《星条旗》正式定为国歌之前,美国的国歌含有英国国歌《主佑吾王》的曲调。
 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 21:10:05审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]
// my pleasure. thanks Friend for the great sharing. we all enjoy it so much. and it is much now needed for our home country and for our country folks fighting for their own rights and the freedom.

// correct. ruler, in its original meaning, or in acient accidental/ western world, is 统治者 who creates the rules for rest country folks to follow. in contemporary world, we use 执政者/ 施政者 who admin or govern the country.


yamakat
98岁,佐治亚
评论于:2012-07-15 11:37:18 [评论]

unavail兄,非常感谢您的精心梳理和评判。这样不仅对读者,对我也有很大的帮助。

 
yamakat
98岁,佐治亚
评论于:2012-07-15 11:29:25 [评论]

unavail兄,非常感谢。

只是“统治者”一词有些刺耳,还是尽量避免的为好?

 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 00:41:46  [评论]
yamakat的日记用户日记页 -- 关闭
 
美国:神话与现实(英汉对照版1)字体[ ] 颜色[ 绿 ]
分类:体坛风云 创建于:2012-07-13被查看:315次 [收藏:日记|作者] [评论]


※ 来源: http://www.JiaoYou8.com ※


America: Myths vs. Realities

美国:神话与现实

自由是怎样早就美国人的心灵习惯的


At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

在几股哲学、社会和地缘政治潮流近乎机缘巧合的汇流处,美利坚合众国应运而生。于是,一个简单的想法被付诸实践:由人们自行决定采用什么形式的政府并制定一整套制衡体制来限定该政府的所有权力以确保个人自由得到尊重。

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?

尽管看似简单,这却是人类有史以来所产生的最为激进、最为革命的想法。它试图将人类组织形式颠倒过来,无异于在对人性自身的理解上的一个大胆的飞跃。人是社会性动物。成立政府为的是确保每个个体守规矩、为他人着想、为公益做贡献,以保障社会的安全。现在,人们从政府的监督下解放出来了,开始追求各自自身的利益,那社会岂不要崩溃?随之而来的岂不是动乱?


Two and a quarter centuries after the founding of the United States of America, we can answer those doubts with confidence: the Enlightenment-inspired American experiment has been a singular and astounding success. Actually, that judgment did not have to wait so long. In 1848, merely seventy years after America's founding, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that America was "not only the most prosperous, but the most stable, of all the nations of the earth." And he made that conclusion after the most penetrating look into the young republic ever attempted and after observing: "The principle of the sovereignty of the people [has been] reduced to practice in the most direct, the most unlimited, and the most absolute manner" in America.

美利坚合众国创立两百多年以后的今天,我们可以满怀信心地回答上述疑问:受启蒙运动启发而行的美国实验已经取得了无与伦比且令人叹为观止的成功。其实,这种判断根本就不必等待如此之久。早在美国创立仅仅70年后的1848年,阿列克斯·德·托克维尔就得出结论说:美国“不仅是地球万国中最繁荣也是最稳定的国家”。托克维尔是在对年轻的美利坚共和国进行过最具穿透力的洞察之后才得出这一结论的。而且,据他考察,在美国,“主权在民的原则【已被】简化为最直接、最不受羁绊、最彻底的日常行事方式。”


Yet, in many parts of the world today, paranoia concerning the prospect of liberty-induced chaos continues to inflict rulers, intellectuals, and common people alike. Ironically, they often point to America as a prime example of what they fear may come. The America they point to, however, is an America of myths and misperceptions, far removed from the American reality.

但是,在当今世界的很多地方,对于自由即会导致动乱的恐惧仍然是执政者、知识分子和一般民众的通患。有讽刺意义的是,他们常常举美国作为他们害怕见到的主要例证。但是,他们举证的美国是一个充满神话和误解的美国,与现实美国相距甚远。

How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 00:40:08审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]
《美国民主》 

美国:神话现实

自由如何构成美国核心价值观

人民决定政府样式政府权力建立一个制衡制度,确保个人自由得到尊从

......
......

政府功能是社会保障确保每一个人自尊自重。个人为他人着想。个人致力于共益事业随着人们摆脱政府监控和追求个人幸福社会是否垮掉社会是否动荡


答案
是, 否

......
......


 




How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart


// 自由既责任人给与选择自由。人必认真承担 (自由选择) 责任。
// 比如, 我朋友的孩子。执意要买东西。不必阻止反对。要引导。钱父母孩子各出一半。孩子会决定买还是不买。何者更划算。

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices.

// 不用害怕自由民主会导致混乱腐败。持久不衰自由民主对子民有强大调控力。

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners.

America: Myths vs. Realities


At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?


托克维尔跟美国社会和民主制度的二三事

从最近出版的几本关于托克维尔的新书当中,我们也许能够更为清晰的了解他和他笔下的美国社会和民主。

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-15 00:38:22审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]
美国研究生入学: 阅读考试

美国:神话与现实

自由是怎样早就美国人的心灵习惯的


在几股哲学、社会和地缘政治潮流近乎机缘巧合的汇流处,美利坚合众国应运而生。于是,一个简单的想法被付诸实践:由人们自行决定采用什么形式的政府并制定一整套制衡体制来限定该政府的所有权力以确保个人自由得到尊重。


            尽管看似简单,这却是人类有史以来所产生的最为激进、最为革命的想法。它试图将人类组织形式颠倒过来,无异于在对人性自身的理解上的一个大胆的飞跃。人是社会性动物。成立政府为的是确保每个个体守规矩、为他人着想、为公益做贡献,以保障社会的安全。现在,人们从政府的监督下解放出来了,开始追求各自自身的利益,那社会岂不要崩溃?随之而来的岂不是动乱?


美利坚合众国创立两百多年以后的今天,我们可以满怀信心地回答上述疑问:受启蒙运动启发而行的美国实验已经取得了无与伦比且令人叹为观止的成功。其实,这种判断根本就不必等待如此之久。早在美国创立仅仅70年后的1848年,阿列克斯·德·托克维尔就得出结论说:美国“不仅是地球万国中最繁荣也是最稳定的国家”。托克维尔是在对年轻的美利坚共和国进行过最具穿透力的洞察之后才得出这一结论的。而且,据他考察,在美国,“主权在民的原则【已被】简化为最直接、最不受羁绊、最彻底的日常行事方式。”


但是,在当今世界的很多地方,对于自由即会导致动乱的恐惧仍然是执政者、知识分子和一般民众的通患。有讽刺意义的是,他们常常举美国作为他们害怕见到的主要例证。但是,他们举证的美国是一个充满神话和误解的美国,与现实美国相距甚远。

=================================================================

America: Myths vs. Realities

At the confluence of several almost serendipitous philosophical, social, and geopolitical trends, the United States of America was founded and a simple idea was put into practice: let the people decide what kind of government they want and curb all powers of the government so founded with a system of checks and balances that will assure the respect for individual freedom.

Simple as it may seem, the idea was actually more radical and revolutionary than any other idea human history had ever produced. It attempted to turn human organization upside down. It was nothing less than a daring leap of faith in the understanding of human nature itself. Human beings are social animals. Governments were formed to safeguard societies, making sure that every individual behave, be considerate of others, and contribute to the common good. With the people freed from the government's watchful eye and with everybody now in pursuit of his or her own good, would society not break down and chaos not ensue?


Two and a quarter centuries after the founding of the United States of America, we can answer those doubts with confidence: the Enlightenment-inspired American experiment has been a singular and astounding success. Actually, that judgment did not have to wait so long. In 1848, merely seventy years after America's founding, Alexis de Tocqueville concluded that America was "not only the most prosperous, but the most stable, of all the nations of the earth." And he made that conclusion after the most penetrating look into the young republic ever attempted and after observing: "The principle of the sovereignty of the people [has been] reduced to practice in the most direct, the most unlimited, and the most absolute manner" in America.


Yet, in many parts of the world today, paranoia concerning the prospect of liberty-induced chaos continues to inflict rulers, intellectuals, and common people alike. Ironically, they often point to America as a prime example of what they fear may come. The America they point to, however, is an America of myths and misperceptions, far removed from the American reality.



How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-09 22:01:17  [评论]
yamakat的日记用户日记页 -- 关闭
 
中国人对美国压根儿就没通的一窍(续《美国:神话与现实》)字体[ ] 颜色[ 绿 ]
分类:旅途见闻 创建于:2012-07-08被查看:246次 [收藏:日记|作者] [评论]


※ 来源: http://www.JiaoYou8.com ※

中国人对美国压根儿就没通的一窍(续《美国:神话与现实》)



(Continued)


Interestingly, Americans themselves are often the most ardent proselytizers of those unflattering myths. It is not difficult for social critics, which is to say, most free-willed Americans, to conclude that "America is the worst society," for problems are indeed legion, especially those caused by political and ideological opponents, but such critics often do not have the necessary international perspective to add, "except for all the rest."

Whatever the reasons might be, the myths Americans created for themselves have, through American TV, movies, newspapers, magazines, literature, etc, found a ready echo in receptive minds around the world. In fact, they often only serve to buttress the myths already manufactured by those minds that have had little exposure to real America but have lots of misinformation and misunderstanding about one central concept: freedom.


Freedom means the same thing for those who have been deprived of it as well as those who consider it their duty to deny it to others: doing whatever one pleases. The only difference is that it fills the former with admiration and yearning while it instills in the latter utter fear and determination to deny it to the former. But they are equally wrong in their understanding of freedom and its impacts.

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices. Indeed freedom is so fundamentally different from license that when human beings are left alone, their primeval urge as social animals takes over and compels them to seek others out and to be nice to others so that they can be part of a larger whole. And there are still quite a few Americans who fail to appreciate this dynamism and are thus consigned to selfish and miserable existences. Often, freedom can also mean being stuck in an undesirable condition with nobody to blame and nobody to turn to. Indeed, nobody in America has the license to do whatever he or she chooses. And that, taken in its entirety, is the true story of the American experience. And that is the one constant line that runs through the entire book of America: Myths vs. Realities while it debunks eleven widely accepted myths about America.


Using rich and illustrative stories gleaned from American history and modern American life, the book drives home a powerful and convincing argument: there is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners. And Americans, long moderated by freedom, are far from the disciples of the Great Satan as myths have them. Their experience with freedom has profound implications for human beings everywhere, especially for those who hate, fear, or still mistrust freedom and democracy.

America: Myths vs. Realities

美国:神话与现实

--How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

自由是怎样造就美国人的心灵习惯的

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-09 21:59:19审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]

俗话说, 水清无鱼。

人的社会, 总是有不劳而获, 混水 mo 鱼的。

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-09 18:52:32 [修改][删除][评论]
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 23:37:52 [修改][删除][评论]

// 人的社会。没有净土。

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 23:34:59 [修改][删除][评论]


天国里。不花钱。没有痛苦。
幸福, 平等, 自由。人之所盼。
 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-09 18:51:53 [修改][删除][评论]
// GRE reading.
 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 10:17:01 [修改][删除][评论]
// 不用害怕自由民主会导致混乱腐败。持久不衰自由民主对子民有强大调控力。

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners.

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 03:05:14 [修改][删除][评论]


// 自由既责任人给与选择自由。人必认真承担 (自由选择) 责任。
// 比如, 我朋友的孩子。执意要买东西。不必阻止反对。要引导。钱父母孩子各出一半。孩子会决定买还是不买。何者更划算。

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices.

//

There is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners.

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 02:21:02 [修改][删除][评论]
 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 23:39:04  [评论]
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 23:37:52审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]

// 人的社会。没有净土。

 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 12:29:09  [评论]


华尔街日报:毁灭资本主义的10大泡沫(图)

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打印本新闻 (被阅读 18943 次)

2005年年中,距华尔街爆发信贷危机还有三年的时候,《经济学人》 (Economist) 杂志就提出了“史上最大泡沫”的警告。当时距2000年互联网泡沫破裂才过去五年,全球房价已经史无前例地上涨了75%。房地产行业即将重蹈互联网行业的覆辙。

格兰瑟姆(Jeremy Grantham)是管理着规模达950亿美元资产的投资管理公司GMO的创始人。2007年4月,他在一份投资通讯季刊上撰文支持了《经济学人》的看法。文中写道:这是一个真正意义上的全球化泡沫,所有国家、所有资产都将受到影响。

到2007年年中,深感忧虑的格兰瑟姆感觉自己彷佛在观察一场慢镜头下的火车事故。到当年10月,这列火车以全速撞上轨道的尽头。一年之后,华尔街这列信贷列车不出所料地车毁人亡。

格兰瑟姆在2012年初的一份投资通讯中看到了一列更长的火车正在加速前进。当他把注意力放在“公共之善”的研究上时,很快就发现,总体而言资本主义既没有道德感,也没有良心。而且资本主义最大的弱点恐怕在于它完全无法解决“资源的有限性”问题,同时不可能在数学上证明实物产出能够持续快速增长。

我们将此称为“永恒增长的迷思”。这一迷思正是为现代资本主义辩护的伪科学说辞。

格兰瑟姆得出结论说,资本主义的缺陷是致命的,就算它在一千件事情上比其它制度做得都好,但在三个至关重要领域中却是失灵的。而不幸的是,对我们所有人来说,即使资本主义只在其中一个领域失灵,这一制度就可能因此遭遇灭顶之灾,而我们也将跟着陪葬。

明白了吗?资本主义正在自杀,同时也在摧毁美国。以下我们列出能够预示这一正在加速的趋势的10大爆炸性泡沫。

1. 医疗泡沫:忘记法院和选举吧──医疗泡沫将爆炸

哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)医学博士安杰尔(Marcia Angell)在《赫芬顿邮报》(HuffingtonPost)上撰写了一篇题为《最高法院的裁决为什么对奥巴马和美国医疗体系不利》(Why the Court's Ruling Is Bad for Obama and Bad for American Health Care)的文章。

文章写道,最高法院做出支持奥巴马医改法案的裁决让我想起一句老话:许愿需谨慎。为什么呢?安杰尔告诫说,不管有没有奥巴马的医改法案,美国医疗卫生系统都会继续瓦解。如果罗姆尼当选,这一过程就会快些;如果奥巴马连任,这一过程就会慢点。

美国医疗成本占美国国内生产总值(GDP)的15%,这一比例是所有发达国家中最高的,而且注定会进一步上升。医疗成本将继续拖累美国经济,尤其是在3,300名游说人士力争使其不断增加的情况下。

2. 政府泡沫让华盛顿与真实的美国绝缘

这个泡沫什么时候破裂?弗格森(Andrew Ferguson)在《时代》(TIME)杂志上发表的一篇题为《波托马克河上的泡沫》(Bubble on the Potomac)的特稿中告诫说,大量借债的美国创造出了本国资本无法支撑的财富,这令美国政府脱离了治下的国家。这种“绝缘”会让美国付出代价。

美国的老百姓或许正在挣扎,但美国政府却处于“待售”状态。华盛顿是政府业务发包中心,这项业务的规模可达数万亿美元。在这里,联邦预算被卖给出价最高的竞标人。游说是这座城市最大的生意:每一位民选官员都有20多名游说者。这些游说者全都在公开宣扬官员们带来的巨大利益,而这些利益常常是游说费用的数百倍。

3. CEO薪酬泡沫膨胀了20%,而银行股下跌幅度高达61%

正是这种心态让华尔街成为孤岛。美国普通民众碌碌无为,而银行CEO却在成就宏图伟业。《彭博市场》(Bloomberg Markets)杂志报道说,银行CEO的薪酬2011年大涨了20.4%,而大多数银行股却出现了下滑。

谁是最大的输家?花旗银行(Citibank)的股东。该银行的股票三年时间里暴跌了61%,而花旗CEO潘伟迪(Vikram Pandit)却获得了1,490万美元的薪酬。

还有更多显示美国不平等现象日益严重的迹象:美联储(Fed)说,过去三年占美国人口1%的富豪其财富规模增加了2%,而广大中产阶级的财富却缩水39%。美国2010年家庭净资产与1992年的水平大致相当。

4. 不平等泡沫目前处于1929年的水平,这敲响了资本主义终结的警钟

诺贝尔经济学奖得主斯蒂格利茨(Joseph Stiglitz)在他的新书《不平等的代价》(The Price of Inequality)中说,美国喜欢自称为机会之国。尽管我们可以说出一大把凭自身努力攀上社会顶层的美国人的例子,但真正关键的却是统计数字:一个人的机会在多大程度上取决于其父母亲的收入和教育?

不幸的是,如今的数据显示,美国梦是个神话……差距在不断扩大。2008年以来,美国人所增加的收入中有93%被占美国人口1%的最高收入者获取了……一种显而易见的趋势是,收入和财富积聚在最富有人群手里,中产阶级被掏空,处在社会底层的人越来越贫穷。

5. 债务泡沫:债务缠身的大学毕业生去卖汉堡和咖啡。

要想了解更多不平等差距的证据,看看Utne杂志的惊人封面吧:一个卡通色彩的爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)在给顾客送上麦当劳特制汉堡,并问:“要配薯条吗?大学文凭现在值几个钱?”值不了几个钱。

在Good杂志的Minimum Rage专栏,很多报道都是关于大学毕业生被助学贷款压得喘不过气的事。美国正在扼杀其未来的竞争力:27岁的纽约大学(NYU)毕业生桑德斯(Emily Sanders)近10年来一直在时断时续地做服务员和酒吧侍者……她没有医疗保险,没有参加401(k)养老计划,甚至连个储蓄账户都没有。大多数时间里,她中午去打首份工,然后再打第二份工,半夜12点以后下班。如果她生病,又有点缺钱,就吃些感冒药,然后不管怎样都得去上班。

6.全球性失业泡沫:政府得到警告,革命即将爆发

《滚石》(Rolling Stone)杂志的迪茨(Jeff Tietz)在《堕落天使》(The Fallen)一文中给我们描绘了另一幅资本主义列车即将失事的画面:美国中产阶级突然急剧衰落……他们原本有着不错的稳定工作,经济衰退改变了这一切。现在,他们在停车场的车里生活。

《时代》杂志通过广角镜头来关注这个全球新的“失业一代”,数千万年轻人没有工作,人数超过阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring)和占领华尔街(OWS)运动的参与者。有人警告政府:在这些人成为无业者且怒火中烧之前,想办法让他们有份工作。

但如果格兰瑟姆的看法是对的,等到政府终于采取行动时,一切为时已晚,届时反资本主义革命会将席卷全世界。

7. 油价泡沫:新石油危机将再次引发“阿拉伯之春”

财务顾问建议各位投资新兴市场,因为“新常态”的美国股市回报率太低。情况或许并非如此。《外交政策》(Foreign Policy)杂志的莱文(Steve Levine)警告说,全球产油国的统治者正在看着油价大跌。下跌的速度是自2008年令人惊恐的金融危机发生以来不曾有过的。行业分析师用“震惊”和“高度紧张”等字眼来形容油价的下一步走势,并说可能发生新一轮阿拉伯之春革命,对产油国的独裁者而言,这无疑是一场噩梦。

8. 风险泡沫:全球经济风险威胁美国经济复苏

摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)前董事长罗奇(Stephen Roach)在《评论汇编》(Project Syndicate)杂志撰文告诫说,自2008年以来美国经济一直处于疲弱的复苏之中。原因在于,史上最大的消费热潮过去之后,美国消费者不愿花钱。

自那以后,出口在美国经济反弹中所占的比重达到41%。在我们增加的出口中,高达83%流向了亚洲、拉丁美洲和欧洲。但由于这三大地区均麻烦缠身,美国可能很快也会遭殃。

9. 缓慢增长泡沫:财政紧缩和投资回报较低将成为新常态

仔细听好:全美超过20万名财务顾问已经听过这份报告。报告告诫财务顾问帮助客户接受低回报的现实。换句话说,投资回报率较低将成为一种新常态,财政紧缩将成为现实:经济增长缓慢,只有部分板块的股票会温和上涨,利率将维持在低位。

明白了吗?这就是说,下半年经济增长乏力,未来存在巨大风险。事实上,个人投资者和美国资本主义在短期内都将面临三大末日场景:欧元区危机、美国大选后的“财政悬崖”以及全球新兴市场面临经济衰退的风险。

10. 资本主义泡沫:自私削弱了美国的领导者地位

斯考克罗夫特(Brent Scowcroft)最近在外交政策双月刊杂志《国家利益》(National Interest)上撰文写道,世界正处于演变、过渡甚至是日益混乱的状态之中。斯考克罗夫特是一名退休的空军上将,也是老布什政府时期的美国国家安全顾问。

斯考克罗夫特在新版《重组的世界》(A World Transformed)一书中写道:过去,我们被看成是为了每一个人而倾尽所能的人;现在,我们则被视作只迷恋自己的特殊利益的一群人。这种短视的愿景反映出很多政界人士以兰德(Ayn Rand)的极端资本主义理念治理国家的一种趋势。

现在你明白格兰瑟姆此前为什么会提出这样的告诫:资本主义既没有道德感,也没有良心。它完全无法解决“资源的有限性”问题,同时不可能在数学上证明实物产出能够持续快速增长。

道德的罗盘缺失。对未来的憧憬缺失。对他们这种短视思维可能带来的后果的认知缺失。这三大威胁将融为一体,颠覆资本主义,同时摧毁美国。

一言以蔽之,美国这种新兰德式极端资本主义将自掘坟墓。

Paul B. Farrell

 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 02:22:06  [评论]
yamakat的日记用户日记页 -- 关闭
 
中国人对美国压根儿就没通的一窍(续《美国:神话与现实》)字体[ ] 颜色[ 绿 ]
分类:旅途见闻 创建于:2012-07-08被查看:8次 [收藏:日记|作者] [评论]


※ 来源: http://www.JiaoYou8.com ※

中国人对美国压根儿就没通的一窍(续《美国:神话与现实》)



(Continued)


Interestingly, Americans themselves are often the most ardent proselytizers of those unflattering myths. It is not difficult for social critics, which is to say, most free-willed Americans, to conclude that "America is the worst society," for problems are indeed legion, especially those caused by political and ideological opponents, but such critics often do not have the necessary international perspective to add, "except for all the rest."

Whatever the reasons might be, the myths Americans created for themselves have, through American TV, movies, newspapers, magazines, literature, etc, found a ready echo in receptive minds around the world. In fact, they often only serve to buttress the myths already manufactured by those minds that have had little exposure to real America but have lots of misinformation and misunderstanding about one central concept: freedom.


Freedom means the same thing for those who have been deprived of it as well as those who consider it their duty to deny it to others: doing whatever one pleases. The only difference is that it fills the former with admiration and yearning while it instills in the latter utter fear and determination to deny it to the former. But they are equally wrong in their understanding of freedom and its impacts.

Freedom, as practiced by Americans, means responsibility. When human beings are endowed with free choice, it does not take long before they realize that only they themselves can be responsible for the consequences of their own choices#. With no coercion, governmental or otherwise, they consciously or unconsciously forgo their fancies and begin to make responsible choices. Indeed freedom is so fundamentally different from license that when human beings are left alone, their primeval urge as social animals takes over and compels them to seek others out and to be nice to others so that they can be part of a larger whole. And there are still quite a few Americans who fail to appreciate this dynamism and are thus consigned to selfish and miserable existences. Often, freedom can also mean being stuck in an undesirable condition with nobody to blame and nobody to turn to. Indeed, nobody in America has the license to do whatever he or she chooses. And that, taken in its entirety, is the true story of the American experience. And that is the one constant line that runs through the entire book of America: Myths vs. Realities while it debunks eleven widely accepted myths about America.


Using rich and illustrative stories gleaned from American history and modern American life, the book drives home a powerful and convincing argument: there is nothing to be feared from freedom and democracy. Instead of leading to chaos and corruption, sustained freedom and democracy have a powerful moderating effect on their practitioners. And Americans, long moderated by freedom, are far from the disciples of the Great Satan as myths have them. Their experience with freedom has profound implications for human beings everywhere, especially for those who hate, fear, or still mistrust freedom and democracy.

America: Myths vs. Realities

美国:神话与现实

--How Freedom Forms Habits of the American Heart

自由是怎样造就美国人的心灵习惯的

 
unavail
39岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-08 02:21:02审核状态:待批[修改][删除][评论]
 
unavail
45岁,加州
评论于:2012-07-07 17:44:05  [评论]
unavail 发表评论于
民主是与非!

--- 美国首条高铁将在加州兴建 造价680亿美元

1. 25名民主党议员中21人支持,15名共和党人反对,最终得到提案通过需要的21张票。
2. 兴建高铁将造福3700万加州民众,不仅改善公共交通设施,刺激经济,更能创造工作机会,缓解加州高于全美平均水平的高失业率现状。
3. 高铁每年带来10万个与建筑相关的工作机会,未来25年将为全州提供永久工作职位45万个。

// 造福民众。回馈纳税人。
// 高铁方便出行, 上班。
// 同时, 高铁可舒缓, 日常上班交通拥堵。
// 好事。好事。好事。

unavail 发表评论于
// 造福民众。回馈纳税人。
// 高铁方便出行, 上班。
// 同时, 高铁可舒缓, 日常上班交通拥堵。
// 好事。好事。好事。
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